Septic systems are the most common type of sewage treatment for people living off of municipal or communal sewage systems. The treatment of sewage is necessary even for people going “off grid”. Most, and probably all jurisdictions in North America have some requirements for sewage treatment. Treating sewage is also significantly better for the environment as exposure to untreated waste water is a common way to spread disease in humans and other animals. Septic systems break down the organic components in sewage and provide water that is safe to be released into a form of biological treatment. This is usually soil, in the form of a drain field. I frequently get asked how large a septic tank is needed for someone installing or upgrading their waste management system. How large a tank needs to be ultimately depends on how much water will be put through it.
Predicting how much water will enter your septic tank will can be simple, or it can be very difficult but it always starts with your water use. To estimate your water usage there are some things you will need to know.
How many people are in your household? How many people are usually in your house and on your system? This includes visitors which only visit once a year. How much water are you currently using? If you have a water bill now you can see it easily. The water you use day to day becomes the waste water you have to deal with later. The age of people in your household will play a factor. Even if you are good at conserving water, children will waste a lot more water and they require more water in the form of bathing and laundry. Both of those traits will increase the demand on your septic system when many kids are around. Larger septic tanks are required for people not used to conserving water, when choosing your tank size, try to remember, most people are horrible at conserving water.
Ok, here are some guidelines for determining the size of the tank required. The smallest tank size allowed in some jurisdictions is one thousand gallons. A one thousand gallon tank can handle around 600 gallons of sewage per day. In terms of percentages, a septic tank should he 40% larger than the flow of sewage into it, or the sewage flow should not be greater than 60% of the tank capacity.
What if you do not know how much water people are using or how much waste water you are creating? You can approximate demand through the size of your house. The larger the square footage the larger the septic tank required. The number of bedrooms is another way to determine the size of tank required, by indirectly measuring how many residents will be living there. More bedrooms means the builder anticipated a certain number of residents. Room counting isn’t the ideal method. Some rooms have multiple occupants, the master bedroom usually has two people sleeping in it, and many children’s rooms contain two or more children.
Like I stated before, the best method is to determine and measure your water use. Below is a table of common water usages and the resulting amounts the average person in North America will use in a day. (The data came from http://inspectapedia.com/septic/wateruse.htm)
|Table 1. Home and Outdoor Living Water Requirements|
|Total Use – U.S. Gals.|
|Adult or child||-||50-100/day|
|Kitchen sink (a)||3||2-4/use|
|Shower or tub||5||25-60/use|
|Bathroom lavatory sink||2||1-2/use|
|Water softener regeneration||5||50/100/cycle|
|Outside hose faucet||5||depends on run time|
|Reverse Osmosis water treatment||*||3-10 gallons of wastewater per gallon of treated water produced|
First count the number of times you do each activity and for how long. Take the gallons per minute flow rate (GPM) and multiply by the total number of minutes. This gives you how much water was used per activity type. Add all the types together and you will have a great approximation of your waste water production. Add in 100 gallons per day per person (or more to err on the side of caution). Once you have calculated you sewage production, and have considered many of the variables discussed above, add another twenty percent to your total. This is your buffer for the unexpected. It could be an unexpected house guest, or a very large gathering at you home something that is out of the ordinary. Determining the size of the tank involves planning for some unexpected or unlikely events, remember the tank has an approximate lifespan of twenty-five years. A lot can and will happen over the next twenty five years.